CGD PGR Mariam Zaquout discusses her article published in Third World Quarterly discusses the experiences of emptiers from diverse socio-economic, religious and ethnic backgrounds, operating across a formal-informal spectrum.Manual pit-emptying – the removal of faecal sludge from pits and tanks using hands or basic tools – is a widespread practice in Bangladesh, and in other low- and middle-income countries. Despite this, little is known about the livelihoods of pit-emptiers. Whilst the status of emptiers in private cooperatives has improved recently due to the support of governmental organisations (GOs) and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), the extent to which these cooperatives are sustainable, without the ongoing support of NGOs or GOs, remains unclear.
The full article can be found here
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